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Modelling succession to include a herbivore effect


Long-term data collected from an old-field community suggest that physical and environmental patterns alone may be insufficient to account for different patterns of succession. Using a simple Lotka–Volterra model to represent competition between early and late succession guilds, we add...

Nutritional stress and behavioural immunity of damselflies


Increased mortality in the presence of stress may result from stress-reduced availability of energy for immune function, coupled with the presence of pathogens or parasites. We tested the hypothesis that stress reduces antiparasite responses of damselflies Ischnuraverticalis (Hagen) to...

Tactic-specific success in sperm competition


Sperm competition is a major force in sexual selection, but its implications for mating–system and life–history evolution are only beginning to be understood. The well–known sneak–guard model predicts that sneaks will win in sperm competition. We now provide empirical confirmation...