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Stability of swimming performance and activity hierarchies among wild largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) at multiple temporal scales: Evidence for context-dependent shuffling between seasons


Laboratory-based studies of locomotory performance in many taxa have noted that individuals form stable hierarchies of organismal performance. Though laboratory studies of teleost fishes have consistently demonstrated individual repeatability of swimming performance, this phenomenon has rarely been studied in the...

Stress, song and survival in sparrows


The stress response—increases in circulating glucocorticoids following a stressor—is typically considered adaptive, but few studies address the fitness consequences of individual variation in stress response. Generally, due to negative consequences of prolonged elevation of glucocorticoids, animals should have a transient...

Sex biases in parasitism of newly emerged damselflies


There are several examples of sex-biased parasitism of invertebrate hosts. Sex biases in parasitism could be explained by differences between males and females either in exposure to or susceptibility to parasites. Our results show that for the common spreadwing damselfly, ...

Sub-lethal ammonia toxicity in largemouth bass


Guidelines for ammonia toxicity in fish are often determined using static exposure tests with immature fish over a 96-h period. These results may not be relevant to aquaculture, hauling or angling tournament scenarios where mature fish can be exposed to...

Stabilizing selection on genomic divergence in a wild fish population


Conservation programs use breeding protocols to increase genomic divergence (by mating genetically dissimilar individuals) in an attempt to circumvent population declines resulting from inbreeding depression. However, disruption of either beneficial gene complexes or local genetic adaptations can lead to outbreeding...

Sexual dimorphism in malodorousness of musk secretions of snakes


Sexual dimorphism is a widespread phenomenon among animals (Darwin, 1871; Andersson, 1994). Differences between the sexes come in many forms, in- cluding both morphology (e.g., size, shape, coloration) and behavior (e.g., risk-taking or defensive behavior). Sexual differences in physiology also...