• Conrad, Kelvin F.
  • Robertson, Raleigh J.


In phoebes, parents of small first broods are able to raise nestlings in better condition. We predict that in harsh years, parents of small first broods would be more likely to renest. Parents of enlarged first broods sacrificed quality of offspring in second broods, which seems a reasonable strategy if nestlings from second broods have lower reproductive value.


First clutches of double-brooded eastern phoebes Sayornis phoebe were manipulated (up two eggs, down 2 eggs or no change) to test for intraseasonal reproductive tradeoffs and to test whether size of first brood influenced food delivery rates to nestlings and nestling quality in second broods.