• Wikelski, Martin
  • Cooke, Steven J.


Conservation biologists increasingly face the need to provide legislators, courts and conservation managers with data on causal mechanisms underlying conservation problems such as species decline. To develop and monitor solutions, conservation biologists are progressively using more techniques that are physiological. Here, we review the emerging discipline of conservation physiology and suggest that, for conservation strategies to be successful, it is important to understand the physiological responses of organisms to their changed environment. New physiological techniques can enable a rapid assessment of the causes of conservation problems and the consequences of conservation actions.