• Robb, Tonia
  • Forbes, Mark R.


To understand variation in resistance to parasites within host populations, researchers have examined conditions under which immunity is induced and/or is costly. Both host sex and age have been found to influence immune expression and subsequently are likely factors influencing the costs of resistance. The purpose of this study was to examine immune expression and associated survival costs for two age groups (newly emerged and sexually mature individuals) of the damselfly, Enallagma boreale Selys. Survival was assessed for experimentally challenged and control damselflies, housed initially at 22°C and then subjected to low temperatures (15°C) associated with reduced foraging activity and food deprivation. Experimental conditions emulated natural local variation in bouts of good weather followed by inclement weather (successions of days with hourly mean temperatures around 15°C and/or rainy weather).


Standard stevenson screen, datalogger, collected damselflies